By Heath, Jeffrey
Jamsay is the largest-population language between a few twenty Dogon languages in Mali, West Africa. this is often the 1st entire grammar of any Dogon language, together with a whole tonology. The language is verb-final, with topic contract at the verb and without different case-marking. Its so much remarkable characteristic is the morphosyntactically brought on use of stem-wide tone-contour overlays on nouns, verbs, and adjectives. All stems have a lexical tone contour corresponding to H[igh], L[ow]-H, HL, or LHL with at the least one H-tone. An examination of tone overlay is tone-dropping to stem-wide all-L. this can be used for Perfective verbs (in the presence of a focalized constituent), and for a noun or adjective prior to an adjective. it's also used to mark the pinnacle NP in a relative clause (the head NP isn't really extracted, so this is often the one direct indication of head NP status). The verb in a relative clause is morphologically a participle, agreeing with the top NP in humanness and quantity, instead of with the topic. ""Intonation"" is used grammatically. for instance, NP conjunction 'X and Y' is expressed as X Y, with no conjunction, yet with ""dying-quail"" intonation on either conjuncts.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Jamsay (Mouton Grammar Library)
In other words, this CvCv- stem can appear with LH, LL, HL, LF, and HH tones. These tonal distinctions, while occasionally redundant (LL before Negative suffix), are in several cases the sole expression of the relevant morphosyntactic category. 3. 3-4). e. prohibitive) forms, as seen in (6) with verb yE$rE@ ‘come’. (6) a. ’ b. ’ c. 3). There are also a handful of aspectually defective quasi-verbs meaning ‘say’, ‘be’, ‘have’, and ‘be in’ with Cv- and CvC- shapes, which are not otherwise allowable for Jamsay verb stems.
Regular verbs end in a long vowel if monosyllabic, in a short vowel if longer. The stem-level lexical tone pattern of a verb can only be all-H or L(L…)H with H on the final mora. In non-imperative, non-focalized main clauses, the verb has the basic structure (2), omitting some details. 2. The 3Sg/Nonhuman suffix is -Ø. The pronominal subject suffix may be the only expression of the subject, or it may agree with an unfocalized preverbal NP. In the unsuffixed Imperfective (positive), Nonhuman subject is distinguished from (human) 3Sg subject by adding quasi-verb kç$ ‘be (nonhuman)’ after the regular verb stem.
For example, da$ƒa@- ‘leave’ has a verbal noun da$g-u@, where the suffixal u prevents spirantization. Spirantized ƒ flanked by ç, and g flanked by o, contrast in the compound ç$ƒç$-yo@go@ ‘ostrich’. In compounds and derivatives, spirantization occurs when the g is in the indicated position within any component stem. It therefore takes place in the two paired direction terms du$-da@ƒa@ ‘east’ and tE$n-da@ƒa@ ‘west’, which compete with uncompounded du^˘ ‘east’ and tE&N ‘west’, and in ga$n-ka@ƒa$ ‘quandary’ (literally “between-squeeze”).
A Grammar of Jamsay (Mouton Grammar Library) by Heath, Jeffrey